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satisfy herself that his back had been scored

Such was the civilisation of the Russian
empire fifty years ago. It is twenty-two
years since M. Robertson's experience was
published. How closely it resembles that of
modern residents and travellers.


BEFORE US is a shabby-looking little old book,
but bearing as frontispiece the pleasant
countenance of a middle-aged womanshe must
have been good-looking in her youthwith
pearls round her neck, and pearl-drops in her
ears, and her hair in little ringlets; and on the
opposite page we find that this is the lively
effigy, as they would have called it in those
days, of Mrs. Hannah Woolley, a lady who
in the turbulent days of the parliament, kept
a ladies' school, and then became waiting-
gentlewoman to a person of quality; and
who, during the Protectorate, kept, with her
husband, a large school at Hackney, and
initiated young ladies into all the mysteries
of the still and stewpan, together with the
more pleasant arts of making rock-work, wax-
work, cabinet-work, bugle-work, upon wires or
otherwise, together with marvellous flowers
of various colours, made of wire and isinglass.

Mrs. Hannah Woolley was an important
person in her dayknown, she tells us, by
one or two smaller publications, and, by earnest
entreaties of many friendsher publisher
being one of themshe began to write this
curious little book, which she entitles The
Gentlewoman's Companion, and Guide to the
Female Sexsixteen hundred and seventy-two
a pleasing manual of all things necessary
for the young lady two hundred years
ago to learn; together with instructions for
behaviour, instructions in letter-writing, and
a choice collection of recipes for both the sick
and the well, both for lemon-cream and for
plague-water.  She relates to us how she
became mistress of such varied information;
which was based upon experience acquired
between sixteen hundred and forty-two to
sixteen hundred and seventy-twoa period
of thirty years.  She tells us she lost both
parents while very young, "and before I
was fifteen was entrusted to keep a little
school, in which I continued two years.
Then a noble lady, finding I understood
Italian, and could dance, sing, and play, took
me to be governess to her young daughter.
On this lady's death, another honourable lady
took me as governess, and when the children
had grown up, I became her stewardess and
secretary, writing all my lady's letters."

While in this situation, she benefited
much by the conversation of divers
ingenious persons, and was also often called
upon  to read aloud in French and English
to her lady and her friends. She here
also carved at table, and thus became
initiated into all the mysteries of that
important science, and competent to wing
the partridge, rear the goose, sauce the
capon, chine the salmon, barb the lobster,
according to that approved vocabulary, as
extensive almost as that of hawking and
heraldry, and just about as unmeaning.
Moreover, as in so large a household accidents
were not of infrequent occurrence, and
the lady was a genuine Lady Bountiful, she
obtained in addition great knowledge of
physick and chirurgery. Thus qualified, our
Hannah soon after married. Her husband,
had been master of Saffron Walden free school,
but set up on his own account. Some years
after they removed to Hackney, and there
had a large school, sometimes of sixty children
How long she resided there, she does
not inform us, nor the date of her husband's
death; but, she sadly concludes, " As I have
taken great pains for an honest livelihood, so
the hand of the Almighty hath exercised me
with all manner of afflictions, by death of
parents when very young, by loss of children,
husband, friends, estate, and very much
sickness, whereby I was disenabled from my
employment."   She therefore feels, that as
she may lay claim to some experience, so, she
trusts, she may be considered qualified to
give such rules to ladies, gentlewomen, and
young maidens, as may be their perfect guide
in all ages and conditions.

The work begins with advice to young
children; in which the maxims, Cut or break
your bread, and do not bite or gnaw it,—
Never drink with your mouth full, &c., —all
the rules which our grandfathers and
great-grandmothers learnt from the pages of
Erasmus, down to Dilworth and Vyse, are to be
found in order. The following rather long rule
puts us in mind of those days of starched
formality when sons and daughters, although
grown up, were expected to stand in their
fathers' presence:  " When you have dined or
supped, rise from the table, and carry your
plate or trencher with you, doing your
obeisance to the company, and then attend in
the room until the rest rise."

The respect which young ladies are to show
to their governessthe private governess is
here meantespecially if she be elderly, seems
to prove that governesses two hundred years
ago occupied a higher station in the family
than unfortunately they do now. The young
lady is also admonished always to treat her
servant with kindness, especially avoiding
flying out into ill-humours while the
important business of the toilet is going on;
otherwise, as Mistress Hannah naively
remarks, you will cause her to serve you only
for her own ends, and whilst you are making
a wry face in the glass, she will make another
behind your back.

Respecting female education, Hannah
Woolley's ideas are greatly in advance of
those of the frivolous, licentious age in which
she wrote. But, there is reason to believe
that women were far better educated during

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